Sunday, August 23, 2009

Benito Mussolini

Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) was a fascist dictator that became Prime Minister of Italy in 1922 and dictator in 1925. He ruled until Italy came under intense attack from the Allies during WWII and progressively greater control by Nazi Germany. On 23 July 1943, he was dismissed by the Grand Council of Fascism and the King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III. Held in various locations for the next two months, he was rescued by Nazi commandos and taken to an audience with Hitler. Hitler demanded he set up another Italian fascist state, which he did. The state remained in existence until its collapse in 1945. On 29 July, 1945, while trying to escape the country, Mussolini and his mistress were discovered by Italian communist partisans and summarily executed.

Mussolini created the concept of Fascism along with Neo-Hegelian philosopher Giovanni Gentile in the late 1910s. The word is derived from the Italian fascio, which means "union" or "bundle," and is ultimately derived from the Latin fasces. The symbol of the movement was an axe surrounded by a bundle of sticks. The tenets of Italian Fascism included nationalism, class collaboration, populism, militarism, totalitarianism, dictatorship, social interventionism, economic planning, and statism. Fascism strongly opposes communism and liberalism. Mussolini's fascism was marketed as a "Third Way" between socialism and capitalism. By instituting a militaristic, expansionist totalitarian state, Mussolini aimed to revive the old glory of the Roman Empire.

Mussolini was born to working-class parents in the town of Forli in Italy. Influenced by the socialist beliefs of his father, Mussolini worked as a political journalist and initially a socialist activist. He frequently got in trouble for his politically charged editorials. When WWI broke out, Mussolini joined the Italian Army as a soldier. By the time the war had ended, he came to believe that socialism was a useless philosophy, and began to develop fascist ideas. In early 1918, he called for the emergence of a man "ruthless and energetic enough to make a clean sweep" to revive the Italian nation and founded a fascist league in Milan, called the Blackshirts.

On 23 March 1919, Mussolini formed the "Italian Combat Squad," also known as the Blackshirts, to promote his fascist vision as a paramilitary group. Though the group only had 200 members initially, by 1922 it numbered 200,000. The group had so much power that it staged a coup in the March on Rome from 27 to 29 October, 1922, deposing Prime Minister Luigi Fracta and installing Mussolini as the new Prime Minister. Mussolini had the support of the military, the business class, and the liberal right-wing, and very importantly, the King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III. Mussolini's early governments were a coalition of various political parties, but by 1925, under pressure from his own militants, Mussolini abandoned any semblance of democracy and seized absolute control, suppressing the opposition with torture, intimidation, and violence.

Mussolini then ruled Italy for about twenty years, from 1925 until 1943. His rule was characterized by large public works programs, such as land reclamation of the Pontine Marshes, creation of jobs, price controls, heavy propaganda, and improvement of public transport. Famously, Mussolini made the trains run on time. Though initially considering siding with France in WWII, by 1940 decided to side with the Axis, eventually leading to his deposition and eventual demise when Italy began losing the war. Since Mussolini and Hitler died in 1945, the government system of fascism has been considered taboo. The word "fascism" is also considered one of the most overused and over broadly applied words in the English language, eventually coming to mean practically anything bad. Hence, most political movements are reluctant to now label themselves fascist.

The Axis Powers

The Axis Powers were the three main belligerents in the Second World War: Italy, Germany, and Japan. A number of other nations also briefly joined the Axis Powers, and Italy actually left the alliance towards the end of the war. Together, these powers managed to take control of large amounts of land and other resources until they were defeated in 1945.

The term “Axis Powers” was actually coined by Benito Mussolini, leader of Fascist Italy, in 1936, when Italy and Nazi Germany signed a pact of friendship. Mussolini boasted that Germany and Italy would become the axis around which the rest of Europe would be forced to revolve. In 1939, Italy and Germany sealed the deal with the Pact of Steel, and in 1940, the Axis Powers signed an official agreement, the Tripartite Pact, which included Imperial Japan.

A number of nations joined the Axis, often under pressure, including Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Thailand, and Yugoslavia. The Axis Powers also bolstered themselves with an assortment of puppet states: Imperial Japan in particular had a number of puppet states which it used to control much of Southeast Asia, including governments in Manchuko, Burma, Vietnam, and Inner Mongolia.

Iraq and Finland both cooperated with the Axis Powers, offering resources, land, and expertise, although they signed no formal agreements. Other nations also cooperated with the Axis, to varying degrees, including Occupied France, Portugal, Spain, and Denmark. After the war, the extent of cooperation on the parts of these countries was sometimes unclear, and a topic of controversy.

In opposition to the Axis Powers were the Allied Powers: the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union, assisted by a number of other nations including Australia, Canada, Norway, Belgium, and a range of South American countries.

Many people regard the Axis Powers as the epitome of evil, pointing to the war crimes committed in the name of the Axis Powers, and the obvious lust for power and resources exhibited by the big three in the Axis. In 2002, then-President George Bush played heavily on the associations with the Axis when he labeled North Korea, Iraq, and Iran the “Axis of Evil,” citing their involvement with terrorist activities.

Human rights

Human rights are a set of basic rights which many people believe belong to all humans by birthright. The concept is ancient, although the term “human rights” only entered usage in the 1940s. Because many people, especially in the West, feel very strongly about human rights, a number of measures have been undertaken to protect them. An international organization, the United Nations, has a large division related to the protection of human rights.

The idea that people are entitled to a few basic rights by nature of their humanity is ancient. Many historical documents have codified some of these basic rights. Unfortunately, there is also a long history of neglecting human rights for certain groups. Many slave-owning societies, for example, felt passionately enough about human rights to include them in their legislation, and slaves were excepted because they were believed to be less than human.

In the 1940s, the Second World War called a great deal of attention to the concept. Many nations were deeply concerned by the actions of the Axis Powers, which greatly abridged human rights for a number of people, most prominently followers of the Jewish faith. At the close of the war, the United Nations was founded, and human rights became one of the major issues that the organization focused on. By 1948, the United Nations had issued a Universal Declaration of Human Rights, asking all member nations to sign it and defend the rights described therein.

As a general rule, most proponents of human rights believe that humans are entitled to their lives and liberty. In addition, humans should be able to think and communicate as they please, as these issues are very tied in with a sense of liberty. Finally, all humans should be entitled to equality before the law. Many people also believe in a number of additional legal protections, including prohibitions on slavery and torture. In addition, humans and governments have a duty to protect human rights.

When a basic tenant of human rights is abused, it is termed a human rights violation. Unfortunately, many countries commit human rights violations, ranging from execution of criminals for trivial crimes to the extraordinary rendition of suspected terrorists. Many people report on human rights violations in the hopes of putting a stop to them, sometimes at risk of their lives. These people hope that human rights may become universal someday without the need for monitors and whistleblowers.

Perhaps few human rights have ever received the legal,

Perhaps few human rights have ever received the legal, political and social scrutiny of the concept of freedom of speech. The first amendment to the United States' Constitution, along with similar passages in the framework documents of other countries, addresses this basic right of citizens to express themselves through written and oral speech. The difficulty with enforcing this ideal of freedom of speech, however, lies with the definition of "free speech" and the rights of governments to restrict or censor potentially dangerous forms of speech.

In essence, much of the original Constitution's content can be boiled down into one sentence: "Let's not do it like England." British laws concerning the rights of citizens to express dissenting thoughts against the government were notoriously strict. The very act of producing a pamphlet or newspaper denouncing the British government was grounds for very severe punishment. When the framers of the Constitution decided to amend the original document, the idea of "freedom of speech," especially where it concerned criticism of the government, became a top priority.

Freedom of speech in a legal sense, however, does not protect every single word ever uttered or written by individuals. The First Amendment primarily guarantees that the government itself would not infringe on the right of a "free press" to publish articles critical of the government. Citizens also had the right to "redress grievances," which meant they could legally assemble in public areas and deliver speeches without fear of government reprisal.

The concept of freedom of speech has continued to evolve since the days of the American Revolution. It is still legal for private citizens to express controversial or unpopular speech under most circumstances, which means a group such as the Ku Klux Klan can deliver speeches or publish material which denigrates African-Americans or other targeted groups. The rules which govern freedom of speech must be applied equally, regardless of the quality or veracity of the speech itself.

There are restrictions on the concept of freedom of speech, however. Certain words and images cannot be broadcast over publicly accessible airwaves, for example. The government still has the right to determine if a form of speech violates existing indecency or pornography laws. Any speech which could be considered provocative "fighting words" or a call to take immediate illegal action is not protected under freedom of speech laws. The idea of yelling "Fire!" in a crowded theater falls under this concept of prohibited speech.

The legal and governmental concept of freedom of speech does not necessarily apply between private citizens and publishers. The Constitution only restricts governmental interference with private expressions of free speech. A private publisher can still refuse to publish a controversial or hate-filled article, and a private owner of a web-based discussion can still remove objectionable posts unilaterally. While citizens may enjoy the benefits of freedom of speech, there is also the concept of "freedom from speech" which protects the general public from immoral or inflammatory forms of expression.

Freedom of speech is an important human right, and one worth defending against threats of arbitrary governmental censorship or repression. With such freedom, however, does come great responsibility. Freedom of speech does allow controversial artists, radio shock jocks and others to push the envelope of acceptable speech and artistic expression, but there should still be some safeguards in place to protect the general population from extreme forms of speech which violate community standards of decency.

Grassroots activism consists

Grassroots activism consists of a group of like-minded people coming together for a cause they believe in. Grassroots activists are not usually controlled by any political party. Their issues are often directly opposed to the policies of the major political powers.

Grassroots activism is often defined as being at the bottom of the political pyramid. Grassroots causes and issues are often the opposite of those of the political powers at the top of the pyramid. However, many major politicians become involved in grassroots issues if they feel strongly enough about the issue. Some cynics may say this is just another way for politicians to garner votes.

Political freedom is a major concern of the grassroots activist. Freedom of speech and the right to protest are essential to grassroots activism. People in Western society can take these right for granted, but there are still many countries in which one can be imprisoned for protesting.

Grassroots activists spend a great deal of time promoting their cause. They hold meetings, organize fund raisers, and donate time and money for causes they believe in. Grassroots activists are vehement in their beliefs. Many protesters have endured time in prison. Animal rights protesters have gone to extreme methods to promote their points of view, but grassroots is most often a peaceful method of changing policy, relying on sheer force of numbers and the public opinion that is involved.

The issues that are important to the activist can be small, such as community funding, or they can have wider reaching ramifications. What may start as a small protest can be picked up by the media and can ultimately change laws. Grassroots activism can be as small as standing up at a community meeting and expressing a point of view. It can be also be a well organized political march against a major political issue.

Grassroots activists are not easily swayed from their point of view. Activists in many towns and cities across America have prevented huge corporations such as Wal-Mart from moving into their towns. Grassroots activists are the little people standing up for their rights against the stronger powers that be.

When members of a specific subgroup unite in order to affect political or social change,

When members of a specific subgroup unite in order to affect political or social change, the result is often called identity politics. Identity politics is not limited to the major racial or gender divisions of our time, but extends into sexual orientation, ethnicity, citizenship status and other instances where a specific group feels marginalized or oppressed.

The phenomenon sometimes derisively referred to as "identity politics" primarily appeared during the politically tumultuous years following the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1965. While much of the attention was focused on the plight of disenfranchised African-Americans, other groups also sought recognition and acceptance through political activism and collective awareness raising.

The success of the desegregation efforts for marginalized African-Americans spurred other groups to take political action of their own. Under the concept of identity politics, women could unite in order to promote the passage of an Equal Rights Amendment. Homosexuals could organize political rallies or start grassroots campaigns to have stronger hate crime laws created or allow same-sex partners to qualify for marital benefits.

Other groups such as legal Hispanic immigrants or Native Americans were also empowered through identity politics. The idea was for marginalized or oppressed groups to be recognized for their differences, not in spite of them. By identifying himself or herself as an African-American or a homosexual or a feminist, a person could focus all of his or her energies on a specific political cause. This singularity of purpose appears to be the most positive aspect of identity politics.

There are those who see identity politics in a less positive light, however. By focusing so much energy on a specific political agenda, practitioners of identity politics may appear to be just as closed minded or exclusionary as those they claim are oppressing or marginalizing their group. The idea that an outsider could not possibly understand the problems or needs of a specific group could create more problems in the political arena.

African-Americans who felt oppressed by a majority white government, for example, had to accept that passage of the Civil Rights Act required the votes of conservative white legislators. Under the focused umbrella of identity politics, such a compromise would have been much more difficult to achieve. This is why many organized minority political groups have largely abandoned the identity politics model for a more ecumenical approach to common goals.


In a general sense, a corporation is a business entity that is given many of the same legal rights as an actual person. Corporations may be made up of a single person or a group of people, known as sole corporations or aggregate corporations, respectively.

Corporations exist as virtual or fictitious persons, granting a limited protection to the actual people involved in the business of the corporation. This limitation of liability is one of the many advantages to incorporation, and is a major draw for smaller businesses to incorporate; particularly those involved in highly litigated trade.

A company is incorporated in a specific nation, often within the bounds of a smaller subset of that nation, such as a state or province. The corporation is then governed by the laws of incorporation in that state.

A corporation may issue stock, either private or public, or may be classified as a non-stock corporation. If stock is issued, the corporation will usually be governed by its shareholders, either directly or indirectly. The most common model is a board of directors which makes all major decisions for the corporation, in theory serving the best interests of the individual shareholders.

In the United States there are three major types of corporations: Close, C, and S.

Close corporations issue stock, but the amount of shareholders is greatly limited, usually to less than thirty. Given the small number of shareholders, normally all are involved in board-level decision making. Transfer and sale of stock is also tightly controlled.

C corporations are the most common type of corporation in the United States. They allow for theoretically unlimited amounts of stock to be issued, and usually have a smaller board of directors which make decisions. C corporations pay taxes both at the corporate level, and at the personal level, as shareholders pay taxes on their dividends.

S corporations are virtually identical to C corporations, save that they have a special tax status with the IRS. Instead of paying taxes at both levels, S corporations are required only to tax their dividends--the corporation itself does not need to pay taxes.

Exporters are business professionals

Exporters are business professionals who prepare and manage the shipment of goods produced domestically to other countries. In most cases, the exporter works with the buyer to process the order, then schedules the shipment and ensures that all relevant paperwork associated with the process is properly filed. While some people and companies involved in the business of exporting focus on niche markets, other exporters focus on providing shipment services for all types of goods and services.

Managing exports is considered the opposite of managing imports. Importers have the responsibility of arranging for the transport of goods and services produced internationally into a domestic environment. With exports, the process makes use of the same channels and is subject to many of the same regulations, although not all countries apply the same regulations and tariffs to both import and export activity.

Both companies and individuals can function as exporters. Individuals may be connected with larger corporations who require raw materials from international sources in order to operate at a profit. When this is the case, the company may establish its own import/export division and handle the two processes in house. There are also individuals who providing exporting services to small businesses who do not have a great deal of volume, but do have an established relationship with an international client.

It is not unusual for exporters to work with all sorts of finished goods as well as raw materials. For example, many countries produce packaged foods that are sold all over the world. The manufacturers of these foods rely upon the exporter to make sure each shipment is scheduled for delivery on time. Exporters also work to make sure each shipment is prepared according to governmental regulations at the point of origin and the point of termination for the shipment, thus minimizing the chance that the delivery would be delayed in customs.

Training for work as an export professional often calls for a solid working knowledge of shipment laws and regulations, the ability to understand and calculate tariffs and shipping expenses properly, and a commitment to detail. Some background in business and business law can also be very helpful in many instances. In some countries, exporters are required to be registered with the government before they can function in their profession, and may be subject to periodic review in order to retain their certification. Where it is necessary to obtain government credentials, there are usually specific educational qualifications that must be met as part of the certification process.

Suppliers are individuals

Suppliers are individuals or businesses that provide goods or services to vendors in return for the agreed upon compensation. As such, suppliers do not generally interact with consumers directly, leaving that task to vendors or shop owners. It is not unusual for a supplier to provide volume discounts to vendors when they agree to sign long-term contracts or place orders for large quantities.

There are suppliers found in just about any type of profession that can be imagined. Wholesale suppliers are very common in the retail industry, where they are likely to manufacture and deliver large quantities of products to their client. Supply companies also work in niche markets as well, such as importing and exporting packaged foods, ethnic or cultural goods, or any other range of products that have a small but reliable demand. In general, exporters of this type will handle all the details for shipment and delivery to the vendor, and include the associated costs in the final charges issued to the client.

One of the main strategies of suppliers is the creation of volume discounts for vendors who place orders for large quantities of a specific good or service. In many cases, the discounts are structured as tiered pricing. That is, the supplier will charge a fixed price per unit if the order is for up to a thousand units, but offer a specific discount if the order is for between 1001 and 2000 units. A higher tier discount is applied if the order is between 2001 and 3000 units, followed by an even higher discount if the order is in the 3001 to 4000 unit range, and so on.

Some suppliers choose to make the discount a little simpler by applying a fixed discount that applies to any order quantity over a certain number of units. Other suppliers prefer to go with discounts issued to customers who are willing to enter into contracts that feature a duration of two to five years and commit the vendor to order a minimum number of units between the beginning date and ending date specified on the contract. Should the vendor fail to purchase that minimum number of units during the life of the contract, the supplier has the option of going back and charging penalties of some type.

Suppliers rarely rely simply on competitive pricing in order to secure steady clients. Along with price, they also tend to strive for quality, an attractive range of goods and services, quick response

An invoice is essentially

An invoice is essentially a detailed bill left by vendors and outside suppliers for goods or services rendered to a company. A typical invoice might list the quantity of each item, prices, billable hours, service description and a contact address for payment. While some expenses may be paid out of a general fund or petty cash account, an invoice is usually paid through an accounts payable department by the posted due date.

An invoice is a legal document which can be used as evidence of an incurred debt. The recipient of the goods or services can challenge the legitimacy of individual charges, but the invoice itself is considered a bona fide debt. Sometimes a vendor or serviceman cannot collect on a bill immediately, so their company will send an invoice at a later date for payment. The actual daily expense of a service may be so low that a company will simply wait for a larger invoice to cover all of the costs at once. Vending machine attendants and bottled water providers may only send one invoice a month instead of billing the company a few dollars a day for supplies.

Not all invoices are bills of sale, however. A manufacturer may send out a 'shipping invoice', which details all of the parts and accessories included in a particular order. This shipping invoice should be compared to the actual parts received by the store or customer. Car dealers also receive an invoice from the factory which details the actual price of the basic vehicle and any optional equipment installed. The dealer may offer a discount to the customer which seems to fall below the invoice price.

The use of an invoice as evidence of a legitimate debt can sometimes be abused. Unscrupulous companies may generate false invoices to account for missing funds or to inflate sales numbers to stockholders. An invoice is only enforceable and legal if corroborative evidence (inventory, duplicate bills, etc.) proves the goods actually exist or the service was actually performed. Companies and individuals do have the right to challenge suspicious invoices in a court of law.

Some companies who use invoices frequently will design their own forms, but generic invoice forms can be ordered at office supply stores. There are also computer programs available which can generate specialized invoice forms through the use of templates. A professional invoice should contain detailed information on the goods or services, clear and accurate prices and current contact information for any billing questions a client may have.

Paperwork is a general term for the many different forms

Paperwork is a general term for the many different forms, invoices, lists, resumes and work that needs completing in every business. Although computers have eliminated some paperwork such as paper memos for the most part, forms and other papers are still needed in most offices. In many offices the same papers can be handled and processed by many people before they get filed, stored or shredded.

Many office efficiency experts advise that each piece of paper should go to where it needs to go right away to be handled by that department or person. After reading and working with each piece of paper it can be either filed, shredded, thrown out, recycled or hung on a bulletin board. Paperwork that is still needed to complete can be kept in a tiered tray. The trays should be labeled to avoid mixed piles of papers in the trays.

The classic way of labeling the trays, or baskets, in a desk top multi-leveled paperwork holder is with the words in and out. The in basket is for incoming paperwork that needs to be done and the out basket holds outgoing paperwork that is finished. Some office workers still label their desk trays this way while others may forgo labels altogether. Some workers don't use multi-tiered trays for paperwork, but may using hanging files to store papers in a deep desk drawer.

Some workers just seem to keep most of their paperwork in a pile on their desk, but most business organizational experts suggest only having the most current project on the desktop. Other paperwork projects can be stored in trays or files for easy reference. Having to search through disorganized paperwork to find something can cut down on productivity.

Types of paper work common to most businesses include forms, reports, legal records, project briefs, employee evaluations, faxes, letters, shipping reports, orders and invoices. Many companies use computer orders and invoices as well as emails rather than letters. Yet most companies print out copies of these for other departments such as the accounting department. Some offices

Grease money

Grease money is money which is paid to an official to facilitate the rapid processing of bureaucratic paperwork. Such a payment is known as a grease or facilitating payment, and the legality of such payments varies, depending on the laws which govern the activities of the official and the person or company offering the payment. Some people consider grease payments to be a form of bribery, since they involve offering money to a public official with an expectation of a result, while others argue that grease money is only used to expedite a task which will be performed anyway, whether or not funds are offered. As such, grease money is simply a cost of doing business in some parts of the world.

As a general rule, grease money is offered to an official to speed the process of what is known as a “nondiscretionary task.” In other words, the task will be performed eventually, because it is part of the official's job description. However, the process could be dragged out over a period of weeks or even months, unless grease money is offered to rush the process through.

Grease payments are most common in the developing world, where public officials are often paid minimal salaries, forcing them to rely on grease money to make a living. In a classic example of a grease payment, someone who wants a travel visa might offer a sum higher than the typical visa application fee to rush the application through, ensuring that it will be ready in time for travel. Grease payments are also used to get things through customs and for a variety of other bureaucratic tasks.

In some countries, companies are specifically banned from offering grease money, whether at home or overseas. In other regions, grease payments are considered acceptable, and they may even be tax deductible, as a business expense. However, grease money falls on a very slippery slope, and it is easy to cross the line into bribery from grease payments, given the nature of such payments.

Opponents of grease money argue that it promotes unfair competition, as people and companies without excess funds cannot offer grease payments, and they may find themselves unable to accomplish basic bureaucratic tasks in some regions of the world as a result. Such payments also promote questionable business practices, making it easier for unscrupulous individuals to cross the line into more dodgy dealings. Demands for grease money can also ultimately hurt a country, by driving off foreign investors who frown on such practices.

Bribery involves offering

Bribery involves offering or accepting something of value in a situation where the person who accepts the bribe is expected to perform a service which goes beyond his or her normal job description. For example, a motorist being ticketed for parking in the wrong place might offer a bribe to the police officer to ask him or her to tear up the ticket. In many regions of the world, bribery is considered a crime, and it can be severely punished. In other areas, bribery is more socially acceptable, which can place a heavy burden on those in the lower ranks of society, as they cannot afford to bribe officials in the style to which they are accustomed.

Any number of things can be used as a bribe. While money is a classic bribe, bribes can also be more intangible, and they might include things like offers of real estate, valuable objects, or a promise to perform a particular service in the future. In order to be considered a bribe, the object of value must be offered and accepted with the understanding that the person who accepts the bribe will be doing something in return. This differentiates bribes from gifts offered in genuine good will, and also distinguishes bribery from tipping, a practice in which gifts are offered in return for good service.

In regions where officials are particularly corrupt, they may come to expect “grease money” to perform tasks which are actually part of their job descriptions, such as reviewing visa applications or inspecting materials being brought through customs. In these instances, people from regions where bribery is illegal may be allowed to offer grease money, with the understanding that otherwise, the task will never be accomplished.

Bribery can be on a very thin line, and cultural differences can sometimes lead to confusion. In some cultures, for example, offering a tip may be considered a bribe, while in others, a failure to tip would be construed as offensive. The complex Middle Eastern tradition of baksheesh is an example of a confusing situation; baksheesh is not viewed as bribery in the Middle East, and in fact a well-established system of bribery exists in some Middle Eastern countries, and it is entirely differentiated from baksheesh by local citizens.

Depending on regional laws, bribery can be prosecuted and punished with fines, jail time, or compensation. Especially in countries which are based on egalitarian ideals, bribery is often viewed as especially offensive, since it erases the illusion that all members of society are equal when someone can essentially buy the favors or skills of someone else with the right bribe.

Track state legislation Integrated grassroots lobbying

We have lost what our forefathers fought so valiantly for. We no longer have government by the people and for the people. We now have government from the municipalities up to the national level that are controlled by special interests. Elections are strongly influenced by funds from special interests. Our elected officials are influenced by special interests and in some cases laws are written by special interests. We the people have a vanishing influence on out government. A sweeping change is needed to put this great nation back on track. I agree that are nation has steered away from the intentions and expectation that our forefathers had in mind, but they couldn't even begin to imagine that the world would be in the technological and environmental stage it is at this time. As far as for the election i do believe they are strongly influenced by certain interest yea, but look at the times of old, do people think that John Adams or Thomas Jefferson were elected because the people had a true word in the election, no, there were certain people's interest involved in those election as well, our forefathers had intentions and expectations for this nation and didn't want them to be jeopardized by anyone or anything. But thats my opinion. I do think that the people should have more of a voice in today's elections, because today's society is in need of strong voiced people to stand and speak their minds.

An activist is someone who takes action in support of or opposition to a cause.

Activism can take a range of forms, from writing letters to government representatives to organizing boycotts. Some activists engage in radical or even illegal activity to further their ends, while others prefer to stay within the boundaries of the law to win more supporters to their causes. Every time someone writes a letter to the editor, educates a friend about an issue, or phones an elected official, he or she is participating in activism.

People have been practicing activism for centuries with the goal of social and political change. Jesus Christ, for example, is considered an activist by some, thanks to His radical preaching and fearless approach to social reform. At various times in history, being an activist has been quite dangerous, as activism was equated with dangerous political dissent, making people who spoke out targets for persecution. At other times, activism has been tolerated or even encouraged.

On a lesser scale, activism might involve participating in activist causes, without actively organizing. Examples like participating in letter writing campaigns, phone banking for political candidates, walking in marches, and supporting boycotts and strikes are all examples of basic activism. Maybe activists start out at this level before moving on to more active organization, which involves things like leading marches, hosting organizing committees, community organizing, offering classes at teach-ins, and so forth.

In some instances, activism crosses the line of the law, as activists become swept up in the cause or feel that they have no other options. On the mild end of the spectrum, this might involve simple disobedience, such as refusing to clear a street after being ordered to do so by law enforcement. Others may pursue more violent tactics, which some people feel cross the line into terrorism. Many activist movements condemn violent activism, arguing that it reduces the strength of their cause and alienates potential converts.

Activists can organize for a wide number of causes. Political parties, the environment, social justice, and moral issues are all common rallying points for activists. Some people participate in activism because they have personally experienced injustice or prejudice, while others simply believe in the cause they support or oppose, regardless of personal experience.